Wildlife Removal Pros: How to Properly Handle Unsightly Bats

Wildlife Removal Pros bat control services

Wildlife Removal Pros bat control services are a necessary service for many people. In cities throughout the United States, bat control services can be found almost everywhere. Bats are not only unsightly, they also carry with them diseases that can kill or seriously injure humans. Without this service, people would be left vulnerable. It is also unlawful to trap or kill bats under any circumstance. This article will provide a brief overview of wildlife removal services and what they have to do.

In towns like Austin, TX bat control services can be found in parks, schools, golf courses, and anywhere there may be wildlife. They will often work alongside wildlife specialists to help remove bats from your area. In populated areas where there are parks with children, they will often work in private residences. They will usually identify the animal and then either capture it, kill it, or release it elsewhere.

Wildlife control specialists work to help preserve the environment. They protect the environment by preventing damage to crops, forests, and other natural habitats. They prevent the animal from coming back. They work to solve the problem, and if an animal cannot be removed, they help to build a better habitat for animals and plants. They can often find the animals and restore a population after an animal has become scarce.

When a population of animals becomes dense, animal predators (including humans) have difficulty reaching the animal. Bats can take millions of years to build their own colonies. Some exterminators are able to identify the species that live around an area before capturing or killing them. Other methods, such as poisons, electric prods, and traps, often result in death. Even when an animal is trapped and killed, other animals feed on its flesh.

Wildlife removal companies are not just out to make a buck. Many of them have a true concern for helping wildlife. Their employees often go beyond just killing an animal. Before entrapping an animal with an electrical wire or inserting a poison needle, professionals test it for disease or parasites. If a wildlife specialist believes in a plan to take care of a problem involving an animal, he or she will likely refer the client to an accredited bat removal facility.

Wildlife managers use bat control services to reduce rodent and insect populations. Bats can contaminate a lot of surfaces with their urine. Control services will often remove bats from homes and buildings. The animals may be relocated to an animal refuge. Other homeowners can contact a wildlife removal company if they have trouble with bats in their houses.

When an animal causes harm or death to people or pets, the responsible party should pay for the damages. In some cases, individuals or businesses that destroy or harvest wildlife (such as deer and squirrel hunters) will be found liable. Animal control services can determine whether the responsible party acted responsibly. This can be a difficult situation for those who feel they acted in self-defense. Sometimes, the responsible party will make a claim of liability against another person or business.

Many responsible persons and businesses are sued by individuals or animal organizations that feel they were harmed or killed because of their behavior. If you think an animal has damaged your property, you should call an animal control services company. The company will assess the situation and help you decide how to proceed. Some things that might be tried are putting out bait to attract the animal and trapping it. You should contact a wildlife removal service immediately if you suspect animal damage.

Although many bats can be trapped and tested to find out their exact population, there will be instances when no live animals are found. This is when a license is issued to test the bats in an accredited laboratory. Once the sample is tested, the pest controller can determine whether or not to release the bats or place them on a list that must be regularly updated.

Anytime an animal is removed from a home or other structure, there is a risk of damage or injury to the person handling the mammal. For example, when a hammer crashes into a window, the sash can be damaged. The same can happen when a bat crashes through a window. It’s important to remain calm and minimize panic. If you need medical treatment, call 911 immediately.

The best way to avoid losing or harming any wildlife is to call a professional wildlife removal company as soon as you suspect the animal has intruded. In most cases, an inspection will be conducted to determine if there is a threat. If so, a trapping team will be called to handle the situation. Once the wildlife is trapped, professionals will remove it safely and securely.

Campad Electronics – Your Ultimate Guide

Campad Electronics is proud to share with you that they now feature two chargers from the world known as Otterbox. The shop has offered Otterbox mini cases to Australian consumers for many years now and are looking forward to continuing to support them with their popular Otterbox powerbanks. The company believes strongly in carrying quality products and as a result, they are happy to offer a range of batteries and chargers from leading companies such as Otterbox. If you have yet to purchase a case from them, then take a look at the two chargers they are offering right now – the Paladin Express and the Vanish Powerstation. Both of these are top of the range products and will add incredible value to any laptop or powerbank, making them perfect gifts for anyone in your life.

Campad Electronics


In order to fully appreciate Campad Electronics you have to look at the various technologies they use. One of their latest innovations is the inclusion of two new wireless chargers. These will enable you to use your iPhone or other devices with ease wherever you are, and at any time of the day. These new chargers are proving very popular with business travellers, those on the move and just people who like to travel light.


The addition of these two new wireless chargers to Campad Electronics has proved highly popular with business travellers and others that may need to charge their mobile phones whilst away from home. The company has recognised the importance of providing a high quality charging solution to consumers and have responded by adding two new chargers to their range. One of these, the Paladin Express is designed to be used in an iPad or iPhone and can be used safely in the air. This ensures that you get the best charging experience wherever you are, making it a perfect choice for those on the move, or on holiday.


The second charger, the Paladin-EZ is a USB 2.0 port that can also be used with your other electronic equipment. It provides the same high quality of charging as the Paladin Express and can be used safely in the air. So, if you travel or are on holiday and require an iPhone or other mobile phone, this is the charger you need. You will find that these two products from campad electronics, along with the many other options available, will all help you make the most of your mobile phones.


In the world of mobile phone accessories, technology has continued to evolve over the last few years. Campad Electronics has been among the first to bring advanced technology to consumers through the introduction of innovative car chargers. Their range of car chargers for iPhones and other compatible mobile phones allows you to enjoy wireless connectivity wherever you are, even whilst out travelling. This means you can now use your phone without any cables, making it easier to stay connected while you are on the move. So, whether you are travelling abroad, for business or pleasure, you do not need to worry about missing a call – your phone will always be charging!


The third option from campad electronics that has proved popular with consumers is their massive range of wallpapers and mobile phone accessories. There are many different styles available for example, and all of them are designed to work seamlessly with your existing gadgets. You can easily download and synchronize your wallpapers and charge your phone without any hassle. In fact, many users have said that the iPhone is one of the easiest gadgets to use with, thanks to the wallpapers it uses.


Another of the exciting new features from campad electronics is the Bluetooth car kit. This has proved to be another winner with the consumer and has come on leaps and bounds since it was first launched a few years ago. Basically, the Bluetooth car kit allows you to make hands free calls hands free by using your car’s built in GPS, regardless of if you are driving in an area that is equipped with cell phone signals or not. You can also find Bluetooth antenna kits for use with your laptop as well, making long distance communication even more convenient.


The final part of this brand’s range of mobile phone holders is the super stylish and compact cradles. With a sleek design and a huge variety of sizes, there is certainly something for everyone. At over two and a half inches thick and weighing almost two and a half pounds, you can safely carry these around with ease. The campad electronics car phone holders are beautifully designed and perfectly designed to match the latest smartphones, with Bluetooth capability.

Gold Cuban Link Chain Tips

Cuban links chain

So you want to buy some Cuban links? I got tired of all my travels to Miami and Las Vegas so when I found out that Cuba had some cool designs I jumped on the chance. I now own several pairs and plan to buy more in the future. The worst part is that I am not in Cuba. But there are a few things that this article will help you do. It may also be of use to others who are considering making the trip.


One: The first thing I found out before I bought any Cuban links chain was that there were a few things that were required to buy them, like a really good size (which I couldn’t find in the store near me), an ID card, and a credit card. I found out that they use a system that matches ID cards with bracelets so that people don’t get confused when trying to buy something. The only minor con found was it did not have the original LV embroidery, but LOVE Cuban links as much as I have given them to others so I have given a bunch away. Also, the guy I bought my links from told me that he does require your name and address so be sure to have those handy. I didn’t need it but he does.


Two: I had been thinking about what I was going to wear with the Cuban link chains. I had considered wearing a pair of Air Force Ones but then remembered how awesome it would be to just wear them with a simple tank top or tee shirt. I actually wear tee shirts and cap sleeves so the Cuban chain works great with either one. I also like the fact that they aren’t made of cheap materials. You can tell that they are quality made by the pricing as well.


I think the best way to wear Cuban links chains is to wear them as a necklace and then put on a pair of skinny jeans. It really looks amazing because the chain is going to stand out and will make you look really hot. I still haven’t gotten the perfect photo of me wearing these things, but I’m sure that once I do they will be perfect.


Three: These chains are available in all gold and silver, which I think is the best that they have to offer. The gold is a nice shade of yellow and looks fantastic with some of the newer pants that are available. I have also worn them on string bikinis where I was able to wear the gold ones around my ankle. These chains are great to use on string bikinis because they tie in the back and make it harder for them to come off.


Four: I have always liked the Cuban links chains. I think they are one of the most unique looking chains out there and I enjoy wearing them. They are made of a real leather band and then have the Cuban name and number on the chain. You can get these chains in plain gold or you can buy them in other gold colors. I have personally preferred the yellow gold, but that’s just me.


Five: The last style that I will discuss is the cufflink Cuban link chain. These are not actually made of gold, they are made of silver. What you do need to be careful about when wearing these is the fact that you need to keep your wrists in proper position. You don’t want your bracelet to rub against your neck.


There you go, now that you have all the info that you need to know about these wonderful gold Cuban chain bracelets. I will let you know later how you can take these chains to another level by wearing them as a waist chain or as a necklace. I think they look great and if you don’t like them, you can’t stop wearing them. I have even seen people wearing these chains as earrings. I’m sure they look even better on you.

Hiring a Web Design Company in Singapore for a Successful Website

web design singapore

If you are looking for an ideal web design in Singapore, then you have come to the right place for more info. With many different options available for you, Singapore is a good place to design your website and to look for a web designer. You can either choose to use the services of an SEO (search engine optimization) company to design your website or you can also design your website yourself. If you are not very familiar with the technical stuffs involved in making a web page, then this could prove to be quite a difficult task for you.


Singapore is fast developing as a hub for many e-commerce companies. This has given rise to the development of a lot of online businesses. Website design in Singapore is seen as a very important aspect of attracting more visitors to your website. In fact, it is one of the main reasons why most people prefer to shop online. For this purpose, it is imperative that you get a custom website designed for your business.


To look for an ideal web design in Singapore, you must be very clear about your requirements and the goals that you want to achieve with your website. If you already have some knowledge about web design in Singapore, then you can choose to hire a local designer. Hiring a local designer would ensure that the work is done on time and in standard. For this purpose, you should also keep the budget in mind.


On the other hand, if you are completely new to the concept of designing websites, then the best option for you is to look for a web designer who is based in Singapore. In this way, you will be able to save a lot of money as well as time. Singapore web designers will be able to understand your needs and requirements better than any other web designer around the world. They also will be able to design your website according to your own specifications. If you want a specific kind of website, you can let the web designer knows this.


Apart, from designing a website, a web design Singapore company will also be able to provide you with web hosting services as well. The hosting service is offered free of cost. This service ensures that your website will be hosted at a server provided by the web design company itself. If you are planning to launch your website in Singapore, you can also look for a website providing eCommerce solutions as well.


Before you start searching for a good web designer in Singapore, it is important for you to make sure that the company is able to meet your requirement. For this purpose, you must first look into the portfolio of the company. A well-designed portfolio will prove to be very helpful for you. You can also contact the web designer by email and get all the relevant information about the company and its services.


In addition to that, you can also ask for references. This will help you in getting more information about the company. Moreover, you can also compare the prices of the web design Singapore firm. Comparing the prices is not very difficult. All you need to do is to get online and browse through the websites of different web design companies. You can get an idea about the price and the quality of the services offered by these companies.


Once you have finalized your choice, it is time for you to upload the content in your website. There are many companies offering web hosting services in Singapore. You just need to upload the content and make changes to the website. A web designer will also assist you with the website. You can simply hire a web design company in Singapore to create a website that will surely attract a lot of visitors.

How to Use Websites For Sale to Sell Your Home With Ajaax

ajax homes for sale

Ajax Homes For Sale. When compared to the regular, traditional websites that sell houses, AJAX websites are more advanced. AJAX stands for “ajax” and it is a method of combining HTML and PHP, so that rich, visual-rich web pages can be generated. A web page that uses an Ajax application is said to contain “Ajax”. Generally, this means that it is more convenient and easier to browse websites using rich media, such as videos and graphics, rather than opening them in a “text-based” mode.


The ajax software is available in many forms. Some of these applications can be downloaded free of charge and some may have to be rented. For example, if you wanted to search for properties that are available through an Ajax sale company, it would be necessary for you to use a search engine in order to find one. But if instead you type in a search word in the browser, and hit enter, then you will see results that are generated by a web processor. This means that not only can you find a website through an Ajax sale company, but also that you are able to view a large number of websites at the same time.


Aajax is a very flexible system and can be used to access any sort of information that you need. This includes searching for websites that are currently available for sale or rent. In addition to this, aajax can be used to find websites that have recently gone on sale or ones which are still available for rent. This means that you no longer have to contact the website owner in order to get additional information.


Most websites that allow ajar to be used to have the ‘ajax’ tagline in their URL addresses. When this is done, the server will communicate with the server used by the web browser. When an Ajax request is sent, the server will respond with the requested page, in the form of raw text. If you are familiar with Java script, then you will understand that the text that is returned to the user has been transformed into a meaningful, standard HTML code. This is the basic principle of what an Ajax script file can do.


It’s also worth mentioning that using ajar has some benefits. Some websites, such as those selling large items such as cars or homes, can take a lot of effort to update. As a result, they may wish to use ajar to post information about their current listings or future home/car deals/auctions. Websites where people will be looking for a particular type of item, such as furniture or games, could benefit from using ajar.


At the same time, there are a few downsides to ajar. A major problem that a seller faces is that some websites using ajar may have a script error, which will not only slow down the entire ajax process, but also can stop the page from loading completely. To prevent this problem from happening, a seller should ensure that he or she uses a good, reliable, and recent Ajax programming tool. In addition, most reputable ajax programmers will offer support and frequently update their software.


Using ajar scripts to promote a house for sale is a fantastic way to attract buyers, but caution must be used. Care should be taken to ensure that the ajax pages are set up properly, that they link correctly to each other, and that they are free from errors. It should be noted that a large number of seller’s websites for sale contain a special ajax page. These Ajax pages are designed in order to lure potential buyers into viewing the house pages of the site. Unfortunately, these Ajax scripts can easily be corrupted or altered by someone who is looking to use the information on the page, or they might have unwanted scripts installed on the page which will cause problems.


A relatively new technology, known as XML trigger, is now being used by some more established websites for sale. This new technology offers buyers a way to easily browse through a seller’s entire home. The advantage of this is that buyers can now see not only the photographs of the rooms, but also they are able to see the floor plans, kitchen and bath listings, the interior design plans, and even the floor plan itself. Because the photos are so detailed, potential buyers feel more comfortable about committing to a purchase. While there are no guarantees that using an Ajax pages will increase the chances of a quick sale, it has been proven in practice that a much larger percentage of sales are successful when using this advanced marketing technique.

Amardeep Steel Plant situated at Vembanad Lake

amardeep steel

“Amardeep Steel Plant amardeepsteel.com situated at Vembanad Lake, Hyderabad, India is one of the established steel plants in India. The main product produced at Amadeep Steel Plant is Tubular Steel Tubing. This plant deals in producing tubular steel tubes and galvanized pipe for domestic as well as industrial application. The manufacturing units at Amadeep include both automatic and manual trencher machines.


The present status of Amadeep Steel Plant is very remarkable and this company has successfully handled all kinds of competition from all around the world. The year 1984 was a time when there was a severe shortage of raw material like pipes and other steel products that was essential for various industrial applications. However, after the year, the stocks of various metal tubes like iron, pipes and galvanized steel started increasing again. This happened because of new advanced process of welding and combining of materials with high strength.


This can be said that amardeep steel plant has developed into a world class facility. This plant not only provides low-priced steel products but also offers services related to welding and fitting. The main process equipment used in welding are welding machine as well as heat exchangers. welded pipes are made by using high strength materials such as pure steel and aluminum or tin. The tubes may be made by using pipes that are galvanized.


The quality products manufactured by Amadeep Steel Centre have the ability to meet the needs of industries worldwide. Since almost every industry demands a high standard of steel, it is very important to buy good quality products. However, the process of manufacturing varies from place to place. Some of the common processes used in manufacturing are blow molding, tolerance heat treating, forging and forming etc. Some of the steel pipe manufacturers in UK are Heyford, Ramsay, Wilson, Ferris and Atkins among many others.


Heyford Steel is one of the leading manufacturers of galvanized and treated steel products. They manufacture galvanized pipes and tubes in different diameters. All these products are specifically designed for high performance and long lasting usage. Since the demand of these galvanized products is increasing day by day, so is the requirement of suitable heat treating and forging process equipment. Heat treating and forging equipment plays a very important role in providing a durable and sturdy metal product to the industry across the globe.


The Amardeep steel centre in India is well known for its galvanized pipe range. The amardeep steel centre acquired the name “Amendeep” from Dutch East Sea. The company has successfully expanded its operations across India. It is also one of the leading importers of industrial raw materials and steel products. The amardeep steel centre holds tremendous experience in dealing with both galvanized pipes and tubes as well as forging pipes and tubes in India.


The Company has an outstanding quality assurance staff. The welders at Amendeep Steel Centre hold comprehensive knowledge about the welding process. They also have the required expertise to deal with all kinds of customer requirements and customize the solutions as per the customer requirement. These days, the demand for high quality steel products has increased across various industries. This is why most of the leading multinational companies have their manufacturing units located in India. India is now becoming the hub for manufacturing of all kinds of industrial raw materials.


With the rapid growth in the manufacturing industry, it is essential for the leading companies to take help from leading industrial raw materials manufacturers. Amradeep Steel Centre has been a part of this emerging industry. It has successfully been able to carve a niche for itself and create a growth story in the industry. We can only expect great things from this company as we move towards a more globalized scenario.

How To Find A Reliable Chiropractor

HIf you are looking for a chiropractor  Broadmeadows, Norfolk, then you have come to the right place. Here you will find that this area is a very rich community, as it has many excellent health care professionals and facilities. Here, you will discover why this area is a great place to live and practice chiropractic treatment. You will also discover how you can find a good chiropractor with reasonable rates.

There are many chiropractors in Broadmeadow. Because of the close proximity of many hospitals and clinics, it has become a popular destination for these health care professionals. Many offer high-quality treatment. These include chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, podiatrists, physiotherapists and many more.

A chiropractor in Broadmeadows should have a lot of knowledge about the human body. This is because this area has a large proportion of people who suffer from some sort of ailment related to their spine. The area is very fortunate to have such a well-rounded population because of the many medical professionals who can help anyone. A chiropractor can help you treat back pain, headaches, neck stiffness, joint and arthritis problems and other body pains and ailments. In addition, he or she can provide services such as performing a spinal manipulation and other procedures.

If you want to find a good chiropractor in Broadmeadows, you will need to do a bit of research. This means looking at the phone book and other directories of chiropractors. Once you find a number of potential chiropractors in your area, you should also look at their credentials. For example, you should make sure that the practitioner is licensed. You should also ask a lot of questions, especially if you feel uncomfortable about the medical professional.

Of course, you can also go online to find a good chiropractor in Broadmeadows. The trick is to be very specific about what you want. For example, if you want to know how to take care of a sports injury, you should specify that, in your search. You should specify the type of sports injury as well, so that your chiropractor can examine you properly and treat you appropriately.

When you call a chiropractor, it will be easier for you to ask questions. You also have the option of discussing everything with the professional without the help of another person. This will give you an idea of the chiropractor’s personality. As a result, you can determine whether he is the right person to hire for these services.

It will also be easier for you to compare chiropractors based on the type of services that they offer. There are several different kinds of chiropractors in Broadmeadows. Some specialize in sports injuries, while others also deal with conditions that involve the musculoskeletal system.

Finding a chiropractor in Broadmeadows shouldn’t be a difficult task. As long as you have some information regarding the chiropractor, such as his name, his phone number and his email address, you can start your search today. You can also check out websites of various chiropractors in Broadmeadow. Once you find a good chiropractor, make sure that he is accredited by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) and that he has been in business for at least two years.

It should also be noted that chiropractors in Broadlands are not allowed to “practice” without having obtained a medical certificate, or having met other requirements. These requirements can differ from state to state. In some cases, you can contact your state medical board and ask for information regarding the requirements in your area. In some instances, you will need to personally visit your state’s chiropractic association to find out more information.

It would be better if you could ask for referrals before hiring a chiropractor in Broadmeadows. You can do this either from friends or from the business pages in the Yellow Pages. Try to talk to at least three chiropractors before making your choice. Ask them about their chiropractic practices, the chiropractor’s bedside manner, the chiropractors’ fees and the cost of insurance for chiropractors in Broadlands.

When it comes to selecting a chiropractor in Broadlands, you may be dealing with some pressure. The last thing you want is to choose someone who doesn’t know what they are doing. Be sure to find someone who is qualified, has lots of experience and is willing to go the extra mile when it comes to your well-being. This will ensure that you will get great care from a chiropractor in Broadlands that will meet your needs. You can trust that you will get effective results from a chiropractor who cares about the well-being of patients.

Sobha Hartland Offers Private Villas And Apartments In Dubai

Sobha Hartland encompasses the majestic Pinellas County waterfront and has become one of the premiere destinations for both pleasure and investment in Florida real estate today. With an ideal setting for large scale residential development as well as commercial development, this small but energetic city is quickly becoming one of the top destinations in the Tampa Bay area. Tranquility abounds as you explore the many points of interest and architectural masterpieces throughout the quaint neighborhoods. Immerse yourself in the culture and history as you explore the many outdoor activities, fine dining, and world class shopping centers throughout the City of Lakes.
Sobha Hartland


With a focus on residential rather than commercial real estate, Sobha Hartland prides itself on providing truly exceptional living opportunities for residents. Offering privacy and charm in a low-key atmosphere, the apartments and villas offer spacious living areas complete with top of the line appliances, hardwood flooring, fireplaces, state of the art entryways, and fully equipped kitchens. If you want to break away from the hassles of daily life and explore the beauty of Lake Travis, Sobha Hartland provides the perfect opportunity to do just that. Breathtaking views of Lake Travis and the Gulf of Mexico provide the ultimate relaxing experience, while breathtaking architecture and top-notch appliances will ensure that your time in the City of Lakes will be pleasant and stress free. Stop by and take a look at what amazing apartments and villas await you!


Downtown Dubai is comprised of some of the most affluent areas in Dubai and offers some of the most enticing amenities available to travelers. Located right in the heart of Dubai, residents of Sobha Hartland can access the shopping and dining opportunities that are available right downtown. Fine dining and top-notch international cuisine are also conveniently provided as part of your daily dose of food and drink.


There are numerous private beach-front apartments and villas in downtown Dubai. Some residents choose these properties for their extended stay. For those looking for a short vacation, a vacation apartment such as one of Sobha Hartland’s Villas in Dubai is the perfect option. Residents of the private properties in downtown Dubai have access to all of the amenities that are offered on a full-time basis. Residents enjoy private decks, private pools, and even have the convenience of having an on-site swimming pool.


The Townhouses and Villas in the City of Lakes are serviced by two different mousetraps – one leading into the Lakes and another leading out of the Lakes. Residents have easy access to the shopping, dining, and cultural offerings that are available in the downtown area. The residents of Sobha Hartland tend to select one of the townhouses and villas that are situated closest to their residences. Residents who stay in the downtown area are able to access shopping, entertainment, and dining right on their doorstep. Those who choose to rent one of the private townhouses or villas in Dubai often choose the same villas as their extended-stay hotel guests. When visiting a private property in Dubai, visitors are often assigned a personal concierge.


The private townhouses and apartments that are located near the Sobha Hartland apartments and shops are usually serviced by separate swimming pools and hot tubs. If the resident wants to play tennis, a game that can be enjoyed around the clock, they can do so right on their private pool deck. Some residents prefer to relax and enjoy the outdoor gardens and swimming areas that are featured in some of the townhouses and apartments in Dubai.


The apartments and villas in Dubai that are open spaces provide residents with many types of recreational options. Residents can enjoy the scenic views that are featured in these buildings. They can also take advantage of the heated indoor pools and outdoor hot tubs that are featured in many of the private villas and apartments in Dubai. The residents of these domes and townhouses will find that they receive all of the modern amenities that they would receive at home, including air conditioning, cable TV, telephone services, wireless Internet connections and other similar amenities.


Another group of people that receive great hospitality when staying in the private townhouses or villas in Dubai that are known as sipha ark drop homes include holidaymakers and foreigners who visit the United Arab Emirates. The residents of these vacation homes will receive extra service and accommodations that are designed specifically for their needs. They will have access to a fully furnished kitchen and living areas. Foreigners often describe the services that they receive as being absolutely wonderful. Most of these private townhouses and villas are serviced by separate swimming pools and hot tubs.

What Types of Tractor Uses Are There?

There are many different tractor uses. The first is for the person who drives a large piece of equipment that does most of the work themselves, such as farmers. The second is the driverless tractor, which is the most popular tractor type today. These are the models with no driver and just a large box that has all the controls in it. They are highly automated and do most of the work for the farmer.

tractor uses


Many people are intimidated by tractor uses, because they think that it will be hard to control and operate one. While there are some farmers that are very good at driving these tractors, there are many others that have little or no experience. In order to be successful with operating this type of farming equipment, you need to make sure that you purchase the right size tractor for your needs. The first consideration that you will need to make is how far you plan on carrying the load that you are going to be carrying.


One of the most popular types of small farmers is the family farmer. These types of farmers use smaller equipment, like the family style compact tractor uses. Most of the time, this is the only tractor that they will buy. It is small, easy to use, and less expensive. It can handle most of what they will have to do with it, like plowing and watering their fields.


The other most popular choice among small farmers is the driverless tractor. They are the newest version of the small farm, and also the most popular choice among the Rastus. Because of its uniqueness, it is being purchased by many farmers. Unlike the traditional tractor, the driverless tractor can actually take a nap, like a car. If you are looking for an easy, quiet way to work, this might be the right option for you.


These types of agricultural equipment can also perform tasks that a person would have to do without them. For example, some farmers have them because they do not want to get out of their seats to feed their animals. They find this type of task uncomfortable. The use of the driverless tractor technologies can change all that. Now, they do not have to feed their animals, they can get down to plowing the field, and even take care of driving their tractors around the field to fertilize the land.


With the use of these types of tractor, a person will no longer have to stay in the cab of the machine, but instead be able to operate all of it from the comfort of their seat. This is the main reason why most of the drivers that operate these types of tractors will tell you that they love it, since they no longer have to sit there, while the tractor is doing all of the work. Now, with the use of the different driverless tractor technologies, a person can have some freedom to take a break and check on the crops that they have planted, or even just take a lunch at their favorite fast food restaurant.


Since they can work autonomously, it means that the tractor is capable of driving itself. Of course, there are still some things that a person needs to do in order to make sure that the farmer is getting the maximum use from their machine. For one, farmers need to know how to program their machine so that it will know exactly where they need to go to in order to get their work done. This is especially important when it comes to harvesting the produce that they have. A person needs to make sure that they have the driver’s attention in order for them to drive safely around the field.


One of the newest agricultural vehicles that has this type of autonomous technology is the John Deere Equipment Collection Vehicles. John Deere is one of the largest producers of garden tractors, lawnmowers, and other farming equipment in the world. These tractors were built for people who need to do long days of hard work on their gardens and farms. Since a large number of these machines take up a lot of space, farmers have had to find innovative ways to warehouse and transport their equipment from one location to another. There is now a new way to do this with John Deere’s newest self-driving tractor model, which has taken the world by storm.

Services That a Roofing Contractor Can Offer

When looking for Roofing Contractor Westlake there are many options available. Whether you have a new building to cover or need to repair your existing roof, there is a roofing contractor that can meet all of your needs. Even if you need to replace your shingles, your roofing options will include everything from tarps to heavy-duty plywood. Here’s a quick breakdown of the many roofing options available in Westlake, and how they compare to your typical roofing contractor.

As you likely know, the best roofing contractors in the country are in Michigan. In fact, the winter is often when Michigan gets the worst weather in the nation. Winter weather causes extensive damage to homes, businesses, and other buildings. When it comes to commercial roofing in Michigan, you want to make sure that your roofing company can come in at any time of the year to help you out. If you live in the greater Grand Rapids area, contact professional roofing contractors today to schedule an appointment to see which of the following roofing systems will work best for you:

– Tarps. One of the most common roofing materials in use today, tarps are often used to cover roofs as well as various other outdoor structures. They are strong and durable, but also very easy to install and tear down. Professional roofing contractors in Westlake can offer you a free inspection of your existing roof, so you can make sure that it’s in good shape before starting any roofing projects. If you live in Grand Rapids, contact your local roofing contractors for more information.

– Sheetrock. Probably, the most well known option for covering your roof, sheetrock is actually a composite material that offers many benefits, including strength, durability, and aesthetics. However, sheetrock is typically used on structures that don’t require a roof, such as detached buildings and detached homes. To schedule a free inspection of your commercial roofing options in Westlake, contact the roofing company of your choice to learn more about these popular but low-cost roofing options.

– Insurfacing. Unlike other roofing options, surfacing is designed to resist heavy weather and to be long-lasting against wear and tear. This type of roofing is best for businesses in areas with steady snowfall and high temperatures. Professional roofing contractors in Westlake can offer you a free inspection of your existing surfacing to determine whether it’s in need of replacement or repair.

– Modified Bitumen. Used in roofing, bitumen is an extremely tough composite material that can be combined with a wide variety of other materials to create an array of roofing options. Because of its strength and durability, bitumen is commonly used in roofing that needs to withstand wind loads, fire, hail, vandalism and even road debris. Because it’s impervious to some chemicals used in roofing applications, modified bitumen is a green alternative to the traditional asphalt roofing. Professional roofing contractors in Westlake can make recommendations for any roofing contractor clients might be considering using bitumen on their buildings.

– Customized Roofing. Whether you’re looking for a roof that’s specifically suited to your needs or are considering a completely custom design, a roofing company in Westlake can help you find the best solution for your commercial building. A free inspection of your building’s roof is available by professional roofing contractors in Westlake. If you have any concerns about the strength, durability, appearance, or location of your roof, you can bring those concerns to the attention of the roofing company of your choosing. The experts will then give you a free estimate on replacing or repairing your existing roof and will work with you throughout the entire process. To ensure that you’re getting the best roofing possible for your commercial building, contact a roofing company in Westlake to discuss your options.

These services can save you time and money, and a qualified roofing contractor in Westlake is more likely to suggest the best solution for your building. You can contact a roofing company in Westlake at any time for an inspection and estimate on your roof. If you have any questions or would like additional information, you can schedule a free consultation appointment to meet with a qualified roofing expert. They’ll discuss the best course of action for your commercial building, give you a free estimate on the cost of roof replacement or repair and take care of all the details from there. If you’re confident that your roof is in good shape and would like to know what’s holding it up, contact a roofing contractor in Westlake today!

How To Find The Right Tucson Solar Panels For Your Home

As you might have heard, Tucson solar panels are becoming a popular option for off-grid electricity generation in Arizona. It’s easy to see why: with a simple and inexpensive kit, you can generate enough electricity to power your entire home and avoid paying a dime in utility bills. And the best news is: your electric bill will be significantly lower after the first year, when you’ve installed your solar panels.

How do off-grid solar panel kits work? They’re simply solar panels attached to your home by a flexible cable. In this way, you can generate enough electricity for all of your electrical uses and not rely on the electric company to provide you with power. In fact, your utility may even offer you discounted solar energy! Of course, the more solar panels you add, the more energy your home can potentially produce, but even having just one or two solar panels off the grid can drastically reduce your electric bill.

When you have a solar energy kit that is designed for your Tucson residence, it will help you convert more of your electrical consumption to solar energy. And as you know, the sun is the most abundant source of energy in the universe. With an average daily kwh consumption of approximately 910 watts, you can easily use more than twice that amount (based on your annual residential area) to power your home.

Tucson solar panels are much more efficient at converting the sun’s rays into usable electricity than standard electric-powered systems are. This means that your Tucson solar panels will have a greater impact on reducing your utility bill. With a grid-tied solar panel kit, you will be taking advantage of one of the most resourceful and cost-effective forms of alternative energy. The question now is: where should you start?

When you set out to purchase a solar panel kit, you would need to evaluate the size of your residence. Next you would have to evaluate the number of daytime hours per week that you spend in your residence. If you live in an area where the sun shines for most of the day, then you would want a solar-panel kit that has the ability to trap the maximum amount of solar radiation. But if you live in an area where it only shines during the evening hours, or during the winter months, then you would want a smaller solar kit. The right size solar panel kit will allow you to choose a unit that will trap the most solar radiation possible.

For the best energy benefits, it is better to use a DIY installation kit that is connected to a local power grid. With a wired connection, you will be able to take advantage of the power savings that come with connecting your home solar panels to the local power grid. You will also be able to take advantage of federal and local tax incentives when you use a DIY installation kit. This is important to consider if you are interested in using home solar panel kits for commercial purposes.

There are some things to keep in mind if you are interested in having a diy installation solar panel. One of those things is to make sure that the solar cells that you will be using in the panels are capable of producing enough energy. You will need to invest in an instruction manual that will provide you with specific instructions on how to attach the cells to each other. It will also be imperative that you have an expert look at your solar panel a few times before you actually start to install it.

The Tucson area has a warm and sunny climate. It makes sense for you to consider purchasing and installing solar panels in your home in order to take advantage of the energy that it provides. In addition to reducing your electric bill, you will also be contributing to a cleaner environment. Tucson solar panels are easy to come by, and are a great way for you to be able to have your solar panels installed and producing power before the end of the month.

The Cold War – 1990

The steel mill continued to dominate the neighborhood, but residents diversified, finding work in fishing, canneries, flour mills, Boeing, and other Seattle employers. Over the years, the tideflats were filled, and the port grew on the north side of Spokane Street, once considered a highway.

During World War II, the few Japanese-American families in Delridge went to internment camps, and temporary war-worker housing crowded the playfields and empty lots. An influx of workers from the Midwest and South changed the neighborhood’s demographics. By 1990, Filipinos, Koreans, Samoans, and African-Americans made up more than one-third of the population; the high incidence of home ownership during the 1950s declined and the number of renters increased.

South Seattle Community College opened on the top of Puget Ridge in 1969. Traffic increased; larger businesses and office buildings crowded out neighborhood businesses. But over the years, the greenness of Delridge—its potential for landslides, periodic flooding, its ravines and creeks saved it from rapid development.

A ten-year effort, led by Seattle Public Utilities and Parks and Recreation, restored Longfellow Creek to health and blazed a heritage trail from Yancey Street south of the steel mill to a bog at Roxhill. In recent years, Delridge Neighborhoods Development Association has converted the old Cooper School to the Youngstown Cultural Arts Center, funded low-income housing, and envisioned a new Delridge Library integrated with housing and street-front space for small businesses and offices.

Throughout the years, Delridge has maintained its reputation as a boot strap community.



Thelma DeWitty

Thelma Dewitty’s class at a Seattle School
Thelma Dewitty’s class at a Seattle School

The war brought lasting racial changes to Seattle. A flourishing Japanese-American community, 8% of the neighborhood in 1920-30, had trouble finding housing in West Seattle after the war. Although Grace Suyematsu’s father lived long enough to see his son Arthur return from serving in the Armed Forces, the family did not resume its floristry business or return to live in West Seattle.

Defense industries offered jobs to African-American workers at Boeing, the shipyards, and the Bremerton naval yard. The city’s African-American population grew by 5,000 between 1945 and 1950. Most of the war workers did not stay in Delridge after the war, however, and the school remained predominantly white. The Hansens and their neighbors, the Williams, moved into the High Point housing project. One black family and one Filipino family lived on Pigeon Point, but it, too, remained largely white.

Delma Carpenter remembers the mixed reception Native American children received in the 1940’s. Her family had moved to Delridge from Alaska, and she generally found friendly neighbors, especially the time she was late to school: “I was running my little legs off to try to get there in time and I fell and I skinned myself on both knees. I was just standing there crying and feeling hurt and sorry for myself because I knew for sure I was going to be late then because I didn’t think I could run anymore, and some lady came out and hushed me and wiped off my knees and put bandages on and gave me a stick of gum…”

Her brother, however, had an opposite experience. He had a Caucasian friend, and they visited each other’s homes after school. “And the next day the kid comes in and says ‘I can’t play with you anymore.’ And my brother says ‘Why?’ and he says ‘Because you’re a dirty Mexican.’ And my brother said ‘I’m not dirty!’ So he came home and he told my mother that he was Mexican and this boy couldn’t play with him, and my mother said ‘You’re not Mexican, you’re Indian.’ So he went and told his friend and they were so happy and they played and got along great, and the next day the kid came back and said ‘You’re worse.’”

The Seattle School District responded to population pressures and changes. Because of a shortage of teachers, the district relaxed its rule requiring married women to give up their jobs.  The music teacher, Dorothy Hoff, “was carrying a baby…and we just thought that was so wonderful!,” recalls Iris Nichols. “This teacher carrying a baby. That was pretty neat…. None of our other teachers were ever pregnant.”
Also, in 1947 the board hired Thelma Fisher DeWitty and Marita Johnson as the first black teachers in the system. DeWitty had graduated from high school in Texas, gone to college, and been given an out-of-state grant to attend graduate school in Washington because blacks weren’t welcome at the University of Texas. When she was hired by the Seattle School Board, five principals requested her, including Lester M. Roblee at Cooper. She was assigned a second grade class there.

“The reception so far as I could see was cordial,” Dewitty said in an oral history interview in 1976. (10) “It was later told to me that some of the teachers were told, I mean, all of ‘em were told when I would arrive, and if any of them objected to working with a Black, they could leave.” The children would be assigned in the usual manner. One mother did object to the principal when she found out her daughter’s teacher was black. When Roblee refused to move the girl to another class, and when the daughter cried about moving, she remained. At the end of the year, the mother told Dewitty how much her daughter had learned “and that she was glad that I had been her teacher.”

Pat Schille has clear memories of sitting in the front row in DeWitty’s second grade class a couple of years later. “She was so calm and so organized and so thorough about everything that you just learned.”

There were some bumps in the road, however, including a PTA talent show in which Schille’s mother wore blackface and sang Eddie Cantor’s “Dear Old Mammie.” “Mrs. Dewitty kindly pulled my mother aside, at another PTA meeting, and explained to her why that would be offensive. My mother was horrified, she had no clue.” Dewitty taught at Cooper for six years before being moved to Laurelhurst

As integration of the teaching staff occurred and rules about marriage changed, gender separation was still common for students. Only boys could be on the projection crew for movies, but the safety patrol soon added girls. Rainy Day Girls, who were used to supervise lower grade students on rainy days, to give the teachers a break, were only girls—“We were future teachers!” Karin Freeman explained.

A blizzard and an earthquake both struck Seattle in 1949. Cliff Davidson was on the waterfront with his buddies when the earthquake struck. They were throwing caps with ball bearings wrapped in aluminum on the railroad tracks. One of his buddies said, “Watch this!” and when he threw his, the whole world started shaking. The tracks were bucking, and the boys could hear windows blowing out of the buildings on Spokane Street. They sat on a knoll and watched the top of the radio tower break off on Duwamish Head.

10. DeWitty, Thelma. Interview with Esther Mumford. Washington State Oral History Program, Office of the Secretary of State, Olympia, WA. 1976.

World War II

War worker housing 1946In the fall of 1941, Sakaeru Susumi and her sister Lillian were the only Japanese-American children at Cooper. Lillian was in sixth grade, and Sakaeru, called Grace, was in third grade. Their brother Arthur had already graduated and gone on to West Seattle High School.

The Susumis lived in the back of their floristry shop on Spokane Street in a building owned by Bethlehem Steel. Because the street was the major road from Seattle to West Seattle, their shop was called Highway Florists. Besides flowers, they sold cigarettes and tobacco, candy and ice cream. The streetcar line loomed above the street. On a boring day, Grace would count the cars of one color—the blue cars or the black cars–that would go by on Spokane Street.

The children’s friends were mainly Caucasian. Besides picking blackberries together, they would slide down empty coal chutes in cardboard boxes, unbeknownst to their parents, of course.

Grace’s father had suffered a heart attack and couldn’t work full bore. “He would take me out to the Sound, to go fishing off the railroad bridge. We would dig pile-worms when the tide was out,” to use them as bait. They caught shiners, which Grace hated, but along with eggs from neighborhood chickens, the fish were a source of protein.

When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December, the Susumi’s life changed rapidly. Grace’s best friend threw rocks at her on the playground at Cooper. Someone slashed her purple coat with a fur collar, a collar Grace’s mother had carefully crafted from her own old coat. The principal or a teacher began walking Grace and Lillian to and from school.

The family had just bought a new car, their pride and joy, and Arthur and his father had built a garage for it. When Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in February, 1942, the family prepared to leave the neighborhood and the car. A man from the FBI came to make sure they didn’t have Japanese knives or books, “to make sure we weren’t spies, I guess, or doing something for Japan.” Her father sat in a chair and broke all of his Japanese music records in half before they could be confiscated. The Susumis left other belongings with family friends and closed the floristry shop.

Some of Grace’s classmates were unaware of what was happening. A boy who often walked home with Grace left with his usual Friday greeting, “I’ll see you Monday.”

“No you won’t,” Grace replied; “because I’m going to a prison camp.” With others from King County, the family was sent first to live in stables at “Camp Harmony” on the Puyallup fairgrounds. Amid the mud around the animal-stall housing and the sight of a ferris wheel in the distance, Grace remembers a ball that went over the barbed wire fence. “If you go after that ball, I’ll shoot,” a guard told her. After the families boarded trains for Minidoka in Idaho, students remember a teacher at Cooper had them write letters to a Japanese-American girl at the internment camps.

As the Susumis left, Fred Hansen’s family moved to Seattle from South Dakota in 1942, attracted by work in the defense industries. Fred’s entire family came, including his mother’s fourteen brothers and sisters and their families. At first they lived at his grandmother’s house in North Seattle. They practiced something called “hot-bedding.” When the ones who were working the graveyard shifts returned home in the morning, they would trade beds with the guys, aunts and cousins who worked the day shifts.

A year later, “my father found a vacancy at the temporary housing projects that had been built for the wartime here …in Delridge.” Scrambling to meet the demand for housing created by the influx of workers, the Seattle Housing Authority and the federal government hastily constructed 442 units of housing in 70 buildings wherever there was vacant space in Delridge. The buildings included a child care center and a community building, many on the playfield and park across from the school.

Fred has vivid memories of the first day he walked into third grade at Cooper. “…when I came into the class, the teacher brought me in and I looked at the blackboard. They were doing cursive writing already and I started to cry! I thought ‘Oh, no!’ I was so nervous because I didn’t know how to write cursive!” The teacher assured him he would do fine, and Hansen quickly made friends, mainly from “the projects.”

Besides the large numbers of migrants from the Midwest, many African-Americans were drawn from the southern United States to the jobs in the Pacific Northwest. The family of guitarist Jimi Hendrix lived in the Delridge projects for a while when he was a baby. Fred Hansen’s next-door neighbors were black; and there were small numbers of Native Americans and African-American students in his grade at Cooper. Before that, “we really didn’t have any people of color to speak of,” Sharon Ackerlund recalls. Darla Fox remembers admiring the jump-rope abilities of the black girls on the playground.

The sudden influx of people and cheap housing disturbed the neighborhood. “As soon as they built those projects,” Patty Schille remembers, “my parents put up a picket fence and I was told to play inside the fence…. Anyone that moved in was perceived as not real welcome. They were new…. If you lived here and you had your own house, then you took care of the place. You cared. Those people that lived in temporary housing, they were not well liked by and large, regardless.”

The housing was substandard, made out of plasterboard and paper. The units were furnished, however, with a wood or coal burning stove in the living room and a wood-burning range. “And you would always have a cord of wood delivered, oh, probably once or twice every two months. I remember that was one of my chores,” said Fred Hansen. “I would always have to go out and stack it because they would dump it in a big pile. So you had to stack it so it would be neat and orderly.”

The icebox was literally an ice box, not a refrigerator. “So you had to order a block of ice and you would put that on top, and it would drain down. There was a pan at the bottom that you would take the water out [of] and dump it.”

Some remember the “war temporaries” positively as a place to start housekeeping. Darla Fox’s sister lived in a one-story building with several units. “Paper thin. They could hear everything through the walls.” Despite this, she was “an immaculate housekeeper…. She was twenty years old and she would have white starched curtains.”

Besides housing, the neighborhood had an influx of defense installations. A barrage balloon battalion was stationed on the playfield, with tethered balloons to protect Boeing airplanes; the balloon cadre practiced marching on Delridge Way. “We used to hear the dirigibles, the blimps, at night. You could hear that little whirring sound when they were going over,” said Fox. “The search lights went on all the time. You’d cover the windows so they would be black. I never quite understood the bucket of water and bucket of sand on the front porch, because one bucket would have done absolutely nothing. But they were always there.” Simon Skalabrin was the Civil Defense person for Youngstown, equipped with a helmet, gas mask, and fire extinguisher. He would go out and make sure each curtain was closed and there was no light showing at night.

Alaska Communications Systems occupied the top of Pigeon Hill. “It was a gorgeous place up there on many acres,” recalls Betty MacWatters. “We had a milkman back in those days, and he had seen Japanese men photographing the city. He went into the station up there and told the operator that worked the radios what happened…. The military was there within two weeks.” Fences went up, guards came. “Then the army came and they put in those big ears that would listen for planes. Anti-aircraft guns went into the woods.” Children walked alongside the fence to get to the school.

The war affected many aspects of daily life. Scarce foodstuffs were rationed. “[I]t was so exciting if Dad came home with sugar,” Sharon Ackerlund recalled. Clear’s Double Bubble was very scarce.  When there was bubble gum at the local stores, Skalabrin’s or Walker’s, “Word passed around and then everybody stood in line,” a big line of little kids. Adults rolled their own cigarettes; shoes and tin for canned goods were rare because of military needs. With the rationing of meat, families found a protein source in fish, pigeons, and rabbits. Oleo substituted for butter. It came in big white chunks with a packet of orange powder to mix in for color. Families grew vegetable gardens called Liberty Gardens. “They [vegetables] weren’t available and it was just something you were supposed to do. It was patriotic” (Ackerlund).
At school, the war “occupied all of our thoughts. Because…we didn’t know if anyone had gotten a message that their father or their uncle, somebody was killed.” Companies donated used paper to the schools, “and we’d use the backs of it…. And they were really frugal with it. I remember we were only allowed to use half a page. We had to fold it and tear it in half…. You just couldn’t waste anything” (Iacolucci). The children bought saving stamps, put on shows to raise money for the Red Cross, went on paper drives and collected metal.

When the war was over, Delma Carpenter said, “the steel mill blew their whistle, and I knew what it was instantly.” They also did it when Roosevelt died, “and I knew, both times, I had a sense of what was really happening…. Both times I was down by the steel mill.”

“Nothing Romantic”: A Steel Mill in our Midst

bethlehem steel

Over the years, the steel mill expanded over the tideflats, helping to fill them with steel byproducts. When the mill was Pacific Coast Steel, there was just a little building on the corner of 28th and Andover. Then there were a succession of names and owners: Seattle Steel; Bethlehem Steel; another Seattle Steel; Salmon Bay Steel, a subsidiary of Birmingham Steel (1991); Birmingham Steel (1992-93); and Nucor Steel (December, 2002 – present). Throughout hard times, the mill continued to be profitable–sometimes barely profitable–and continued to dominate the neighborhood with employment, land ownership, smoke, and noise.

The steel mill “was part of our lives. Everybody on that hill worked at the steel mill. Every morning at eight o’clock, the whistle blew. It blew loud and long. Then at three o’clock in the afternoon, same whistle blew…And once in awhile, nine o’clock at night” (Thornquist). Mill jobs provided good, regular pay.

At first, workers endured primitive conditions, so close to the tide-flats that salt clung to their clothing. “They’d step on their shoes and they would squish water,” Erma Schwartz recalled.

The work was exhausting. “My father used to come home and he’d lay across the bed and he was just all cramped,” Schwartz continued. She explained that the men held onto big tongs to move the molten iron in the furnace, make it into a ball, and then take the ball over to a pit where it would cool. Then it would be ironed out and put through the rolling mill part to make into plates. Her father cramped from trying to move the heavy ball with the tongs.

In response to these conditions, there was a strike before World War I. “[M]y father was very strong union man because of the fact of the poor conditions in which they were working. And so he and several other fellows got together and went on strike….” They got a union started and eventually went back to work, “but they had committees that would, if there was anything wrong, they’d go to management and say this has to be taken care of and so forth. So from that the union grew. It was 1208 Rainier Lodge.”

Because of the union, Schwartz said, conditions improved. “But it took these old men who really went through the mill to get behind it and see that things were done.” Today, the AFL-CIO local’s sign hangs on a private home that once housed the union and before that was the Congregational church.

Strikes occurred again during and after World War II. Delma Carpenter said she would be trudging through the snow to the Safeway on Spokane St. “Sometimes I’d be going by and the steel mill would be on strike, and the men would have big barrels, burn barrels…. They’d be at their burn barrels, and they’d stop and give me a cup of coffee…. And they’d have two of them because by the time I’d finally be warmed up I’d leave one, and I’d walk another three or four blocks and run into another one.”

Workers pulled together for the war effort, too. Gino Lucchesini’s father talked about the one day’s work they donated, the biggest production day ever. “Everybody worked hard, really produced.”

After the war, the mill switched from open hearth to an oxygen blasting mill, blowing oxygen into the pig iron and scrap to create heat. With the open hearth method, workers shoveled in calcium and magnesium and aluminum. “It was really quite a spectacular thing to see,” Nick Skalabrin recalled. “The rod would come down the full length of these rollers, the guy at the end would catch it and swing it around in a hot arc onto the rollers to go back in the other direction. And the thing did not collapse on him if he made that arc right. He’s standing in this hot arc. And the arc would go around him.” When the switch was made to oxygen blasting, many workers were laid off. Today the process is controlled by a person at computers in a booth far above the floor.

Outside the mill, great plumes of brown smoke filled the valley and obscured the hills on both sides, according to Clara Davison. Laundry hanging on clothes lines quickly turned brown. The mill eventually put in a conditioner to mitigate the smoke.

Production noise was nonstop. Davison remembers the sounds of the gondola cars at night. The “frogs” of steel being dumped into the cars “kept you awake.” “The steel mill was crushing cars and crushing every metal they could get ahold of,” in the 1940’s (Iacolucci). “It was banging and clanging all the time.” Gloria Coyle mentioned seeing the red hot steel and hearing the noon whistle and the steel dumped into railroad cars. “You know, when those ingots would traverse up this belt and drop into a railroad car, my brother, who was hard of hearing, could feel the vibration,” Iris Nichols recalled. “And at night, those things would go Clunk! I can still hear those things going Clunk! Clunk! Sometimes when they would drop a big [frog] it would kind of shake the house. Scare Neil [her brother] spitless because he thought there were monsters in the house, shaking the house.”
“There is nothing romantic about living next to a steel mill,” Janice Newell maintains.

On the east side of Pigeon Hill, Bethlehem Steel operated a fastener plant and a tie plant, making tieplates for railroads. Later SSI, a real estate company, tried to turn the Riverside mill into a mall. Where the Riverside Mill sign now hangs over an industrial plant, there was a roller-rink.

John Hendron’s father worked in one of three saw mills on Elliot Bay. “That’s what Seattle was built from,” he claims, “the efforts that went on in that valley.” Nick Skalabrin’s father came from Croatia in 1907 and first worked at Puget Sound Bridge and Dredge, building Harbor Island. Croatian women who lived in Riverside worked at the canneries

The Fisher Flouring Mills also provided employment and grain for Youngstown’s chickens. Neighborhood children could sweep up the wheat and corn that spilled over from railroad cars at the mills. When the children threw coal at the cars, the guys that worked on the railroad cars would throw dented cans of food back at them, from the canneries on Harbor Island.

Another employer was the brickyards on West Marginal Way. There were at least four brickyards operating in the first half of the century. Belgians and a lot of Swedes and Norwegians who lived on Pigeon Hill worked there. They used clay from the hillside for the bricks. When they closed, kiln dust remained on the sites. In the early years, many fathers were fishermen. Thelma Thornquist’s father had his own small commercial boat that he took to Alaska to fish halibut. Croatians introduced purse seining to Puget Sound, fishing for salmon in Elliott Bay or in Alaska in the Bering Sea. “There were barges full of salmon they were catching off the Duwamish” (Skalabrin). Iris Nichols recalled that her family moved to Youngstown because her father heard about work at the steel mill, but shortly after he started the mill went on strike, and he went to work at the shipyards. “After the strike, most of the men came back to the steel mill, but my father didn’t. He stayed at the shipyards.” Youngstown was a blue-collar neighborhood, with men working in the steel mill and shipyards and women not working unless their husbands died. “I don’t recall knowing anyone that was a ‘professional’” (Ackerlund).

Common Ground in Play

Throughout the 1930’s, eighth-grade graduation photos show that the school was still predominantly Euro-American. A few Japanese-American families sent children to Youngstown, the Ishida’s and Susumi’s, and at least one African-American family, the Hendersons. According to Betty MacWatters, the school was mainly Caucasian. “[Residents] were basically back then the immigrants of the 1900s, which were German, Polish, Italian, some English, Yugoslav, Austrian. We had a melting pot. And nobody was ever concerned with what they called you. They used to call us Wops, different slang names which are not permissible now. Of course, we had no other input. All the other races were not prevalent here. We didn’t have a lot of Hispanic. We didn’t have a lot of Afro-American. There were [a few] but they mingled and seemed to get along with people.”

Food exchanges at lunchtime and after school educated children in ethnic tastes: spaghetti traded for apple pie, Norwegian lefse passed around in the lunchroom. Skalabrin’s store sold pickled herring, lutefisk, sauerkraut, and bakalar (dried cod). Italians and Croatians competed in wine-making, sampling lugs of grapes shipped each fall to Georgetown from California. “And there’d always be an argument on Saturday night about the right way to make wine. They all had their wine,” Nick Skalabrin remembers.

Among the children, however, there was awareness of socio-economic differences that came with geography. There was freedom to ride bikes almost anywhere, comments Betty Dunn, except for the Gulch. “The only thing that we ever were warned about–you had to be careful of those kids that lived in The Gulch.”

“If you lived on the hill, you stayed on top of the hill,” Vivian McLean recalls, at least the children did. Families had so many children they had fun just among themselves. Debra Miles Yerg confirmed the experience of being tied to the hill except that she and her friends were free to roam up and down the hill and woods to Riverside.

Darla Fox viewed the difference from the valley: “There was a little bit of a separation of the kids that lived on the east side of Delridge Way—up on Pigeon Point, or south of the school—to all of us in our little neighborhood. We didn’t get together that much. There wasn’t any way of getting together unless we met at the park.”

The Duwamish River, Longfellow Creek, and the park were common gathering places for kids after school. “I can remember climbing up on one of the pilings,” says Mary Alice Willi; “the first time I jumped in the river, it was so cold it took my breath away! I thought I was going to drown and die right there.”

John Hendron describes an afternoon ritual in the summer: maybe up to two dozen kids building a fire on a section of Riverside beach and then swimming in the river. He learned to swim “by taking a piece of rope and putting five ring corks—fishnet corks—on the rope, and tying it around my waist. That caused me to float…. After awhile, I was able to take one ring off… and I could still swim. And then I’d take another ring, until I had only three rings on my life belt. I was still able to swim alright. I was going to take off another one, then I thought, ‘What the heck! I think I can swim without it.’ Then I threw it away.”

Once he was proficient, he joined the older boys: “Sometimes we’d get on a boat that was tied up at the dock and hide until it backed down into the river. Then we’d get up and thumb our noses at the captain, and jump off the bow as they backed out” and swim to shore. However, in the 1940’s, a third-grade student at Cooper drowned in the Duwamish.
Betty MacWatters played at the clay pits at the brick yards on the Riverside side of the hill. “Then on the river we would always borrow several of the men’s small rowboats… and we’d row out over the log booms to find the ducks on Kellogg Island.” Although they couldn’t swim a lick, “we’d walk them log booms. We must have been insane.” Children also swam when the tide came in to Spokane Street, but at least one boy drowned doing that.

Longfellow Creek runs through the Delridge valley, beginning at a bog near Roxbury Street, flowing north through what is now West Seattle Golf Course, and into the Sound. Salmon and beaver inhabited the creek, which was tamer than the river as long as it wasn’t flooding. Gino Lucchesini fished with worms and a stick with a piece of string. His brother gaffed salmon with a broomstick and a hook when they came up from the bay to spawn in the creek. Four-inch stickleback inhabited the swampy lower end of the creek in the early 1930’s (Hendron).

Cliff Davidson and his friend Richard Knight once caught a 13” rainbow trout in the culvert where the creek runs under the golf course. Davidson chased the fish from one end of the culvert, and Knight caught it with his bare hands, earning himself a picture in the newspaper.

Delma Carpenter described tying a big heavy rope to a tree. “We’d get up on the bank and would swing over the creek, and some of us would come back, and someone would grab us, and other times we’d just drop to the other side and wade back across and take turns doing that.” Newcomer kids might not know to make a good run on it and wind up in the creek. “So it was always a big deal when a greenhorn was going to do it because you knew he was going to have to drop into the creek” (Skalabrin).

Falling into the creek was not necessarily healthy. A lot of sewage and storm drain overflow flowed into it in the 1940’s and 50’s. When the steel mill diverted the creek’s water to a cooling pond, salmon could no longer spawn in the creek. Children swam in the cooling pond even though it was fenced; “you could climb over the fence” (Skalabrin). Today that polluted site is paved under a fitness center club parking lot.

“It wasn’t quite as clean back then [in the 1960’s] as it is now,” Bruce Schwald commented, but he and his friends still had great times, making little wooden replicas of hydroplanes and floating them on strings up and down the creek.

Periodically the creek overflowed its banks. The meadow across the street from the school was swampy because of the flooding. One of the PTA’s first actions was to have it drained.

Puget Mill Company was the original owner of much of the land in the area. They sold or donated sites near growing communities when there was a sharp increase in state taxes. In the 1920’s, the land south of Genesee Street was a dump. Kids went there to look for wheels, Gino Lucchesini recalls. “If you’d find some wheels, you’d make a little go-cart. We had to entertain ourselves, you know.” In 1938 the City of Seattle purchased that land, and WPA funds developed the West Seattle Golf Course and Recreation Area. In the early years, the golf course was not fenced, and children had easy access for bicycle riding, sledding, and picking up golf balls. “We used to go over to the golf course late at night and fly kites” (Fox).

The golf course, the playfield, and Camp Long served as large backyards. After the demise of the slingshot wars, Lucchesini remembers playing baseball and tennis in the park. Games of kick the can and hide and seek went on until dark on summer evenings. “We used to play up in Camp Long…up and down the paths for hours. During school, we’d go across the street and play at the playfield. And I don’t recall adults there. When they rang the bell, we’d go back across the street. And we’d play in hills, and running, just over that whole thing…. We had a great time. We had forts and camps and everything,” said Sharon Faler Ackerlund. Iris Nichols echoes that freedom: “One thing I remember from grade school that the kids can’t do now, and that is we could all meet up and just go someplace. Ride our bikes, play down by the creek, roller skate, go swimming at Colman pool. And our parents didn’t have to worry about us.” She tromped all over Youngstown, Pigeon Point and the valley selling Campfire mints by herself. Nick Skalabrin and his brother had a Schwinn Knee Action bike which they rode double. “We’d get on the top of Avalon Way… and we could coast all the way down Harbor Avenue to where we could fish for cod… We’d go there early enough that the tide would be down and we could get pile worms, and we’d use that for bait. So we’d catch cod, usually rock cod, and we’d bring it home and have it for dinner.”

Because the neighborhood was self-contained, “We had a run of the place. It was just everybody knew everybody, everybody went to Cooper that was in that area,” said Paula Tortorice. Along with that freedom came a certain amount of mischief. Grace Susumi Suyematsu recalls sliding down coal chutes on cardboard boxes Betty McKenzie used to slide down the cement rain gutters on the north side of the school to the sidewalk below with a friend. “Our mothers soon discovered this was the reason the soles of our shoes kept wearing thin.” Gino Lucchesini described five or six guys getting on the cow catcher of the small dinky (streetcar) that ran in the neighborhood to the main streetcar on Spokane Street. The boys would bounce the car up and down and rock it off the tracks. “Then they’d help [the conductor] put it back on.”

The neighborhood was not without rules for the children. In the early decades, most of the families had two parents at home, according to Georgia Baxter, and “there was always somebody there to tell them what to do or look out for them.”

“Most kids in those days…were very well disciplined. Whatever their dad said, that was it. No ands, ifs, or buts about it…. You always had to be home for dinner,” Lucchesini recalled. Although much of the play was unsupervised, parents supported community activities. Barbara Iacolucci described her fathering grooming the baseball field in the park: he would tie the old bedsprings to the back of the family Durant. “I’d stand on the bedsprings and he’d drive slow around and around. And that’s how we’d smooth out the Delridge ball fields!”

In the 1920’s Youngstown School hosted silent movies on Friday nights, featuring Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, and Buster Keaton. “Friday night, that was a big deal, come up to the school and see the Charlie Chaplin movie” (Lucchesini). With a community center, the park became a more organized hub of activities with dances on Friday nights, tap dance lessons, and nickel movies. It was always neutral ground where any kid in the neighborhood could go. There were trips outside of the neighborhood, too, bicycling to Alki Beach and the Natatorium and to Colman Pool in Lincoln Park. In the 1930’s, “A group of us would gather enough money to have a five-cent hamburger and a ten-cent movie” at the theaters downtown, Georgia Baxter recounted. Then they would walk up the waterfront, through Hooverville, and into town. There were also summer trips to the zoo at Woodland Park and excursions to the skating rink in White Center.
Religious organizations held the community together, too. Bayview (or Mayflower) Church had started on Pigeon Hill in the early 1900’s, later becoming known as First Congregational Church. The church sponsored a basketball team for neighborhood boys. In the 1920’s, Swedish immigrants started the Youngstown Corps of the Salvation Army, which moved into a hall across the street from the church on Andover and 23rd, hosting Sunday School and youth work. Iacolucci recalls that people felt comfortable at the Salvation Army church because they didn’t have to dress up in suits, dresses, hats, gloves, and high heels they couldn’t afford. The Boy Scouts, Cub Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the Salvation Army Girl Guards used the basement during the week. Many of the families in the communities were Catholic and went to Holy Rosary Church, and some children attended Catholic schools.

The first Boy Scout troop at Cooper School was organized by the Sea Scouts in 1936. Another troop was organized in 1943 and took boys on two-week hiking trips to the Olympic Peninsula. “This was still considered a rough neighborhood,” Fred Hansen recalled, “but our Scout leader [Lionel Skinner] had such an interest in the boys of the community, not to let them become juvenile delinquents. It was important to have this stability for the boys.” Besides having one of the only telephones in the community, Skalabrin’s store on Dakota had a branch of the public library and the polling place for a huge part of West Seattle. During one of Franklin Roosevelt’s later terms, people lining up for the one voting machine stretched five blocks long, all the way up Dakota Street to 30th Avenue and then across and up by the golf course.

Neighborhood Improvement

Pride began early in Youngstown. The Youngstown Improvement Club was organized in 1914, and Bill Schwartz was president. In the 1930’s the Schwartzes led a movement to change the image of Youngstown, to escape the negative stigma of a company town. Erma attributes the effort to her father’s pride: “…his pride and my mother’s pride. They didn’t want me coming from a neighborhood that we would be ashamed of…. “

The PTA, under Henrietta Schwartz’s leadership, petitioned the school board to change the school’s name. The board tried to find out if the whole neighborhood supported the name change and asked the PTA committee for suggestions of new names. After serious consideration of naming the school after Catherine Blaine, wife of the first Methodist minister in Seattle and its first schoolteacher, the committee decided to avoid the connotation of a girls’ school. They recommended the name Frank B. Cooper, after the progressive superintendent.

Students were assembled in the auditorium and told the name would change to better the community, according to Fred Tharp. Students would receive a C for Cooper instead of a Y for Youngstown for awards. “It sounded better,” he thought; “not so rugged and tough because we were really right next to the steel mill, and it was pretty husky in those days.”

Not all of the community thought the name needed to be changed. Willi recalls that she was pretty upset about the name change. “I didn’t know who Cooper was, quite frankly.”

After the school’s name change in 1939, Schwartz’s parents worked to persuade the city to widen and pave 24th, the main avenue at the base of Pigeon Hill. The city first paved one side of the dirt road and then the next. “They took off ten feet of everybody’s property and never paid you for it. But they took it to make it wider, and they first paved our side, and then people complained they were parking out in the middle. So Dad went down and argued with them and said, ‘On the other side, we need cement too.’ So they did finally pave the other side and left the middle in dirt. That progressed finally way out to White Center” (Schwartz). The street was renamed Delridge Way with its more positive connotations of a dell between ridges. The collection of neighborhoods, such as Youngstown and Pigeon Hill, eventually became Delridge, too. (9)

Community activism continued when local businessmen built a community club farther south on Delridge Way. The club hosted plays, dinners, and dancing. For a time, the Westside Italian Civic Club met there. Eventually the Youngstown Improvement Club became the Delridge Improvement Club, both a precursor to today’s Delridge Community Association.

9. Attempts to change the name of Pigeon Point have not been successful.

The Gulch

The lowland between Duwamish Head and Pigeon Point was known as the Gulch, sometimes Poverty Gulch or Garlic Gulch or Little Italy because of the large number of Italian families who lived there. Nichols remembers that the Seraphina’s, Bertoldi’s, Guntoli’s, Scatina’s, and Valentinetti’s were mostly congregated just south of the steel mill, “so I grew up learning to love Italian food.”

“We were called Gulch Rats,” according to Darla Fox. “We were always called Gulch Rats” while the kids living down on West Marginal Way on the river were called “River Rats.”

Besides being poor, the Gulch could be an especially rough neighborhood. In the 1920’s, a single policeman (O’Neill, a “big Irishman”) patrolled Youngstown. Every hour he would call into the precinct in West Seattle from the police call box on 26th and Andover. There were taverns toward Spokane Street and a whorehouse that children were warned away from. Bootleggers operated from Youngstown, and there was an occasional violent death. The druggist, George Holman, once shot a man who tried to rob him. At Mike’s Meats robbers blew the whole side of the building out and took the safe.

When Prohibition was repealed, Gino Lucchesini’s father, Guido, converted his pool hall into a tavern, across from the entrance to the steel mill on Andover Street. Lucchesini described the tavern as a form of entertainment, with shuffleboard, pool tables, and league play, serving steel workers, shipyard workers, and people in the neighborhood.

There was more than one gang: a “cross-the-creek” gang, the “east side of the creek” gang, and the gang south of the school field. Lucchesini described slingshot wars between the 26th Avenue Gang on the east side of the Longfellow Creek and the 28th Avenue Gang on the west side. “I was too young to have a slingshot—the older kids handled the slingshot—but I used to carry rocks. You used to use garbage can lids for protectors.” He remembers that dads intervened to stop these wars after one boy got hit in the head with a cross-the-creek shot.

In later decades, Davidson remembers a Gulch Gang of young toughs, some of them really crooks, some not. “They stole cars, things off of cars, had a theft ring going.” Because of this reputation for gangs, the cops would patrol Youngstown and would stop kids after 10 p.m., well into the 1950’s. “We’d get back from a football game, and they would ‘roust us out’—make kids get out of cars, spread-eagled, be searched. We were a sure target for the cops.”

The community’s reputation was described by Richard Hugo, one of the Northwest’s best-known poets. Hugo grew up in White Center at the southern end of Delridge and wrote about the communities of White Center, Youngstown, and Riverside in his autobiography, The Real West Marginal Way. Riverside, Hugo wrote, was “a cluster of drab frame houses,” with Slavic and Greek immigrants: “The homes huddle together and climb the east side of Pigeon Hill, up into alders and ivy.” Despite this drab appearance, he found Riverside attractive. “The names, Popick, Zuvela, Petrapolous, were exotic, and the community, more European in appearance than any other in Seattle, always seemed beautiful to me.”

His description of the entire neighborhood was less favorable: “the filthy, loud belching steel mill, the oily slow river, the immigrants hanging on to their odd ways, Indians getting drunk in the unswept taverns, the commercial fishermen, tugboat workers, and mill workers with their coarse manners.”

In contrast, the middle-class communities of West Seattle towered above the gulch. To the west “sat the castle, the hill, West Seattle where we would go to high school. What a middle class paradise. West Seattle…was an ideal. To be accepted there meant one had become a better person.“ (8)

“It was everybody’s dream, I think, to eventually get to West Seattle,” said Mary Alice Willi.

Barbara Iacolucci recalls that everyone was pretty much in the same boat. “We all lived in areas where…there really wasn’t any snobbery because nobody had a lot. The area wasn’t poor, but compared to West Seattle they probably thought it was poor.”

In his middle school and high school years, Fred Hansen became aware of the distinction between Delridge and West Seattle. “This was always considered a lower-class neighborhood. But then we began to take pride in the fact that this was our neighborhood, a tough neighborhood. And when we went to high school, a lot of our kids from here were good athletes and did very well at the high school. Even at the high school we hung around together at the radiator. They called us the Radiator Gang. We were the Youngstown or Cooper Radiator Gang. But it was fun because no one gave you any trouble….”

8. Richard Hugo. The Real West Marginal Way: A Poet’s Autobiography. (W.W. Norton, 1986).

The Great Depression

The Depression of the 1930’s was a hard time for a working class community like Youngstown. The steel mill was closed much of the time, putting up a small blackboard to notify employees when there was an order that would produce a few days work. Many Riverside residents worked in public projects under federal programs like the Works Progress Administration. Women went to work at the National Cannery Company, on call whenever products such as pork and beans, fruits and vegetables arrived or the local fishing fleet brought its catch.

People relied on their gardens, on fishing, on keeping chickens and goats, and on drinking goats’ milk when needed. They would get through the winters by canning fruit from trees in the neighborhood. Residents also gathered coal that fell off the railroad cars passing through. The customers at Skalabrin’s grocery store ran up large charge books; the store would carry families until payday and often beyond.

Dale Corliss and his family were invited to dinner by a family who had thirteen children. “We had corn flakes and canned milk and bread with lard on it. That was their dinner–that was a special dinner. We never forgot that.”

Many of the children at Youngstown came from large families. Harold Tuffs (whose family had 11) mentioned the Walcotts who lived up on Avalon and had 18 children. “That mother would bring this huge box out on the porch. Then the youngest would come out, and get a kiss and a sack. And a kiss and a sack. Kiss and a sack [he makes a motion like a stair-step]…. I used to love to run up there and watch that.”

At lunchtime, many students could not afford to buy the hot lunch. Those who did considered it a treat. “[I]n the late Depression, we could never afford to throw away food,” Clifford Harrington recalls. “My mother used to say, ‘If you can’t eat it, don’t take it.’ I think I remember peanut butter sandwiches and soup and that little bottle of milk…. we never would leave any food because it cost too much.” Others remembered oyster soup, surplus meat, and tapioca pudding. In addition, those students who qualified would receive a milk lunch, a morning snack of milk and crackers.

The school also hosted a program for pre-school children which included a daily lunch, and there was a commissary by the steel company where people could get milk, bread, flour, eggs, sugar, and salt. “I remember my brother had his little red wagon,” Baxter recalled. “He and I, it was our job to take that wagon down and get our stuff and bring it home.” Her father trolled for fish for the family and sold the extra fish for 25, 50, or 75 cents, depending on size.

Hard times showed up in sewing classes, too. Girls making dresses allowed a generous hem so it could be let down as they grew. Instead of buying new fabric, they brought scrap from home for their projects or fabric from old clothes that could be dyed and re-used. Georgia Baxter’s mother would rip up hand-me-down clothes people had given them, wash the material, then cut out patterns and make new clothes for her children.

Youngstown students who went on to West Seattle High School often walked to the top of Duwamish Head to save the streetcar fare. “We used to get streetcar tokens, two for a nickel, and if you couldn’t afford them we walked from there up to the high school…,” recalled Erma Schwartz. Once during a snow storm, “three of us went up there and Abbe Cash [the boys’ advisor] met us at the door and he said, ‘You crazy kids. Why did you come?’ Well, that was a letdown after we had struggled all that way to get up there in the snow storm.” The children warmed up in a room of the school and then trudged back down the hill.

An Expanding Curriculum

In the flourishing 1920’s, Seattle passed a bond issue for schools. A new eight-room building, designed by architect Floyd A. Naramore, joined the older brick school*. The classy new building wasn’t quite finished when school started in the fall of 1929. Teacher Jennie Jones described some of the confusion in verses from a song she titled “Owed [sic] to Youngstown.” It was sung to the tune of “Clementine”:

“Whistled tunes of merry workmen

Hymns intoned along the hall,

Flues are hammered, buzzers tested,

Still we teach above it all….

“We are waiting for our blackboards,

There to write assignments neat,

Till they come, we are expected

All directions to repeat.”

Once it was finished, the new school had a gym, a lunchroom, two libraries and additional rooms for classes in sewing, cooking, art, music, shop, and drama. Although supplies were limited at first, the arts and music curriculum became strong. There was an orchestra “that anybody could join if they could play,” Willi remembers.

Even “at the height of the Depression with no money… we had music every day,” Corliss recalls. He described the Standard Hour (named after the gas company). “For half an hour, we put our heads on the desk [and listened to the radio] and we were told to specify when we heard a certain instrument… For instance, if I had [been] assigned a tuba, I had to raise my hand when I heard it…. It taught us how instruments play together.”

He also recalled singing every day in class, songs like “Old Man River,” “Massuh’s in the Cold, Cold Ground,” “Home on the Range,” and “Finlandia,” which Jennie Jones wrote words to.  The teachers at Youngstown “encouraged music for everyone whether you were a football player or soccer player…. [W]hether they liked music or not, we all learned it.”

Clifford Davidson experienced music outside of class, too. On the third floor at the end of the stairway, up into the attic, “there was an old victrola…. We used to like to go in there and play this record over and over and over again on the victrola. It was ‘Aida.’”

Physical education classes designed to make students “stronger, straighter, and healthier” (Willi) could meet in the new gym or on the playfield. The curriculum of the 1920’s included lessons in sanitation and personal hygiene and a survey of the children’s health habits. The regular room teachers taught setting up exercises for 10 minutes each morning, with an emphasis on posture, sitting, standing, and walking.

For a posture contest for the girls, Willi’s mother made her a dress with pinstripes going up and down “because it would make me look straighter. I didn’t win but at least it did make me look straighter.”

The school had two play courts, one for boys and one for girls, both with covered areas when it rained. The drinking fountains were separate, too. Any boy found on the girls’ side had to wear a ribbon in his hair. “But there was an area where the girls could see the boys—between the courts—and often the kids would holler back and forth. It worked very well. The boys played their games and roughhoused around, and the girls played what they wanted to,” relates Betty Rinaldo MacWatters. Boys played mainly soccer, softball, and Soak-em. Other alumni remember playing drop the hankie, jacks, marbles, hop-scotch, streets and ladders, skinning the cat, jumping rope, dodgeball, tag, and sliding on the ice on the playfield.

One day of the week was library day “where we checked out books and learned to enjoy reading, said Betty Moe McKenzie. Every Tuesday was Bank Day, which taught the habit of saving. “You used to bring a bank book and your little dime or your nickel,” said Darlene Allen, “and somebody would be the banker.” McKenzie explained that the school was the way to convey deposits to Washington Mutual Bank, which had a School Savings Department with accounts in parents’ names. “I was always so proud to lay a dollar bill down on the desk,” she recalled. According to the school’s newsletter, the Youngstown Spotlight, 33% of students were banking in the 1930’s; the writer appealed to school spirit to bring the percentage higher. In math, children figured out the class banking percentages.

What they didn’t put in the bank, students spent in the neighborhood stores to which they walked, especially the ice cream and soda fountain, which lasted until the 1950’s. “The big thing was to walk down as far as the drug store, George’s, and go in there—they had the old wood counter—and have Green River Sundaes. Those were the fun things” (MacWatters). Besides Green Rivers (green and bubbly drinks made at the fountain), George Holman’s store had ice cream, penny chocolates, chocolate sodas, and cherry Cokes, remembers Betty Beavert Dunn.

A nickel bought a lot. Bruce Schwald’s father was a roofer for the Seattle School District, and he was working on the Cooper School roof one day when Bruce was walking home from school. “Hey, Dad, can I have a nickel?” he called up to his father on the roof. He wanted to buy an ice cream bar at the school. Bruce’s dad obliged, but a crowd of schoolkids had gathered, and they grabbed for the nickels. “He must have thrown down 50 cents worth of nickels, and I never did get one, but he made a lot of kids happy that day.”

Life wasn’t all sodas and ice cream. “I used to walk down to the meat market in Youngstown every Tuesday to buy a pound of hamburger,” wrote Linda Fouts McCullough, “and he would always give me a pickle from the big barrel there.”

* The old frame building was torn down in 1929. In 2005, construction of a parking lot north of the school revealed some of its foundations